Tried some of the simpler suggestions given by the mods in-game, and got my city going. Probably should have tried these sequentially to see which one was the actual fix, but ended up doing them all before trying the game:
Reset modem and router
All drivers were already up to date
Changed firewall rule for dof.exe from Auto to Always Allow
First time I tried the View army and then Proceed to World Map, it loaded right up.
But then when I logged out and tried to log back in to a different city, I got the "Connection Timed Out" error. So I exited game to restart the client, but the process wouldn't end. I was at desktop, but the game sounds were in a broken loop. Had to manually end it from Task Manager.
Logged back in, and none of my progress had been saved from the previous play. But since then, everything is working fine. So I'll keep my fingers crossed.
Thanks everyone for the assists. Here is one last log from the failed game shutdown.